- GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development
- Intergovernmental organization. A regional organization comprised of Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development takes its name from an acronym of its members. The group’s charter was signed on 7 June 2001 in Yalta in Crimea. The organization originally included Uzbekistan, which at that time was positively oriented toward the United States and fearful of the Russian influence in the near abroad (Uzbekistan pulled out in 2005, following a bloody crackdown on protesters in Andijan). The goals of the organization include democracy promotion, developing common strategies for economic development, and enhancing regional security. Viewed as a counterbalance to Russia’s dominance of the Commonwealth of Independent States and its affiliated agencies, GUAM enjoyed the support of Washington and the European Union. In its short history, GUAM has sought to improve energy cooperation, develop a joint peacekeeping force, and address the frozen conflicts in Transnistria, Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia; however, little of substance has materialized.See also Community of Democratic Choice.
Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Robert A. Saunders and Vlad Strukov. 2010.
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